Transducer play a vital role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process should be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another one.
It is a device which converts one form of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical power is converted into an electrical energy.
Kinds of transducer:
There are 2 kinds of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Rotary Torque Sensor is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electricity on its own. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and more are the most effective types of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for the Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect can be found in some materials (including quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied to the structure, it generates an electrical charge and, when an electric powered field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” comes from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any sort of piezo mechanism can be called a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to drive voltage changes and thus can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are utilized in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The advantage of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker depends on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging will also be based on piezoelectrics. In cases like this, the Micro Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly increases the amplitude while reducing the input power at the same time, i.e. the system is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is normally used to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are usually operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which are very widely used for pressure sensing applications. These are sometimes used together with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, as an example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive means that the resistance changes using the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors tend not to generate a charge (energy) and they cannot convert mechanical in electricity and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a wonderful option for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be found when leading edge performance is needed.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated underneath the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can also work for 10’s of vast amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a good option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is needed to supply the controller the right information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by offering the correct amplitude and phase output to the piezo actuator. The sensor could even become a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any type of rapid actuation may cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, what this means is, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it is going to cause. In the event these forces are unwanted, a second piezo mechanical system having a counter mass can be integrated and driven using a signal of the opposite phase. With a little fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel the other person out as well as the work piece are now able to move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is usually used in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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